History Cerdà Eixample , the precursor of modern rational planning .
The Eixample district is the result of the growth of Barcelona in one of the most lavish of its history, in the time set to head definitely contemporary Catalonia engine .
The origin of the Eixample is located in space Barcelona Plain was outside the walls, between the city and the surrounding villages . It was a large expanse of flat, which could not be built because it was considered a military zone and where there were only orchards and the farmers de Gràcia in Barcelona, which were crossed by the roads leading out of the gates of the old city.
The Cerdà Plan
With its urban plan , Cerdà wanted to design an equitable city, where some neighborhoods are not differentiated from others by the living conditions imposed. The same services were expected uniformly to all corners .
It was based on a large network of streets perpendicular and transverse . All these uniforms, but two -way skewed – overlapping Diagonal and Meridiana and the Gran Via Corts Catalanes give them . The point where these axes were was the big communications center of the Eixample , which envisaged a large square, the Les Glories Catalanes . With great rigor , foresaw the uniform distribution of service areas, such as markets , community centers and churches , and a large district parks .
Apples were not exactly square as to facilitate visibility in the corners were cut shaped chamfer angles . Inside each one is only allowed to build on one or two sides , and the remaining space was left for the neighbors garden . The houses were not to have more than three stories high , nor had to be very deep . Cerdà and established him because he considered the health of citizens depended on to live in different houses illuminated by clean air to circulate the gardens that had to surround them everywhere.
With respect to the gardens , in addition to street trees and gardens in every block of houses planned for each district a large park four to eight blocks in length. Furthermore, Poblet area , today the Sagrada Familia district , planned a great racetrack and a large forest in the east end of the city, on the shore of Besòs . Also be provided for three hospitals outside the network of streets .
Although at that time it was difficult to imagine the existence of the car, spacious streets were left where they could move the cars, cars and horse-drawn trams . In short , Cerdà wanted to do a city to live in as to avoid the density of old town houses . The charm of the Eixample is not only more valuable buildings but the whole , the houses that are simpler have a ledge, a rail or a lodge with a significant detail of the architecture that characterizes them.
Modernist architecture blending new techniques and materials of the time with the use of the resources provided by the various traditional decorative techniques : the stucco , the graffiti , the stained glass leaded glass , wrought iron . The work of the artisans’ serviced design and conception of modernist architects . A new architecture and a new concept of space that reflected the ancient techniques of the tradition and the newer , all in a harmony in the service of creative freedom.
Lluís Domènech i Montaner , Josep Puig , Antoni Gaudi and many other architects created gradually , the new district. Began a new style that moved away from the monotony of eclecticism dominant until then .